Real-time IOD monitoring at IOD Monitor

Questions and comments may be addressed to Saji N. Hameed by email (saji'at-mark' or from my ResearchGate page

Journal Papers

Journal Publications


  • D. Samanta, Saji N. Hameed, D. Jin, V. Thilakan, M. Ganai, S.A. Rao, M. Deshpande, 2018: Impact of a narrow coastal Bay of Bengal SST front on an Indian summer monsoon simulation, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35735-3 get it online

  • Saji N Hameed, 2018: The Indian Ocean Dipole, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science. Ed. by Hans von Storch. get it online

  • Saji N. Hameed, D. Jin, and V. Thilakan (2018) A model for Super El Ninos, Nature Communications, 9, doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04803-7 get it online


  • J. E. Chu, Saji N. Hameed and K. J. Ha, 2012: Non-linear, intraseasonal phases of the East Asian summer monsoon: Extraction and analysis using self-organizing maps, J. Climate, doi: pdf document

  • What caused the cool summer over northern Central Asia, East Asia and central North America during 2009?, Kyung-Ja Ha, Jung-Eun Chu, June-Yi Lee, Bin Wang, Saji N Hameed and Masahiro Watanabe, : Environmental Research Letters, 7, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044015, link to online version


  • Min, Y. M., Kryjov, V., An, K.H. and N. H. Saji, 2011: Evaluation of the Weather Generator CLIGEN with daily precipitation characteristics in Korea, Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 47, doi:10.1007/s13143-011-0014-y

  • Stefanova, L., Misra, V., O Brien, J., E. Chassignet and N. H. Saji, 2011: "Hindcast skill and predictability for precipitation and two-meter air temperature anomalies in global circulation models over the Southeast UnitedStates" Clim. Dyn., doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0988-7


  • Karumuri Ashok, Satoshi Iizuka, S. A. Rao, N. H. Saji and W-J. Lee, 2009: Processes and boreal summer impacts of the 2004 El Nino Modoki: An AGCM study GRL, 36, doi:10.1029/2008GL036313

  • Hongwen Kang, C. K. Park, N. H. Saji and K. Ashok, 2009: Statistical downscaling of precipitation over Korea based on multi model ensemble predictions, Mon. Wea. Rev., 137 DOI: 10.1175/2008MWR2706.1.


  • Vinayachandran, P. N. and N. H. Saji, 2008: Mechanisms of South Indian Ocean intraseasonal cooling, Geophysical Research Letters, 35 L23607, doi:10.1029/2008GL035733. pdf document


  • Saji, N. H., S.-P. Xie and T. Yamagata, 2006a: Tropical Indian Ocean Variability in the IPCC 20th-century climate simulations, J. Climate, 19, 4397-4417. pdf document

  • Saji, N. H., S.-P. Xie and C. -Y. Tam, 2006b: Satellite observations of intense intraseasonal cooling events in the tropical South Indian Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, doi:10.1029/2006GL026525. pdf document

  • K. Ashok and N. H. Saji, 2006: On Impacts of ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole events on the sub-regional Indian summer monsoon rainfall, invited article, Natural Hazards, 42, doi:10.1007/s11069-006-9091-0.

  • S.-P.Xie, H. Xu, N.H.Saji, Y.Wang and W.T.Liu, 2006: Role of Narrow Mountains in Large Scale Organization of Asian Monsoon Convection. J. Climate, 19, 3420-3429.


  • Saji, N.H., T. Ambrizzi and S.E.T. Ferraz, 2005: Indian Ocean Dipole Mode events and austral surface temperature anomalies, Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 39, 87-101. pdf document


  • Ashok, K., Z.Guan, N.H.Saji, and T. Yamagata, 2004:On the individual and combined influences of the ENSO and the Indian Ocean Dipole on the Indian Summer Monsoon, J. Climate, 16, 3141-3155


  • Saji, N. H. and Toshio Yamagata, 2003b: Possible Impacts of Indian Ocean Dipole Mode events on global climate, Climate Research, 25(2), 151-169. pdf document

  • Saji, N. H. and Toshio Yamagata, 2003a: Structure of SST and surface wind variability during Indian Ocean Dipole Mode events: COADS observations, Journal of Climate, 16, 2735-2751. pdf document

  • Behera, S.K., A. S. Rao, N. H. Saji} and T. Yamagata, 2003: Comments on 'A cautionary note on the interpretation of EOFs.', Journal of Climate, 16, 1087-1093.

  • T. Yamagata, S. K. Behera, S. A. Rao, Z. Guan, K. Ashok and N. H. Saji, 2003: Comments on Dipoles, Temperature Gradients and Tropical Climate anomalies, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 84, 1418-1422.


  • Saji, N. H., B. N. Goswami, P. N. Vinayachandran and Toshio Yamagata, 1999: A dipole mode in the Indian Ocean, Nature, 401, 360-363. pdf document

\item Vinayachandran, P. N., N. H. Saji and T. Yamagata, 1999: Response of the equatorial Indian Ocean to an unusual wind event during 1994, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 1613-1616.


Saji, N. H. and B. N. Goswami, 1997: Intercomparison of the seasonalcycle of the tropical surface wind stress in 17 AMIP atmospheric general circulation models, Climate Dynamics, 13, 561-585.


Saji, N. H. and B. N. Goswami, 1996: An improved linear model of tropical surface wind variability, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 122, 23-54.


Goswami, B. N, V. Krishnamurthy and N. H. Saji, 1995: Simulation of ENSO related surface winds in the tropics by an AGCM forced by observed SST, Monthly Weather review, 123, 1677-1694